Tag Archive for police

Smarter Approach to Public Safety Leads to Smarter Approach across Entire City

At last fall’s International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) conference, IBM previewed its new i2 Intelligent Law Enforcement offering. Billed as “the convenor of the ecosystem for public safety,” this new software solution promised to help law enforcement organizations bring down silos with Big Data capabilities that combined tactical lead generation, predictive policing and intelligence analysis.

Fast forward to today. IBM has announced a Smarter Cities initiative in partnership with Miami-Dade County that links the public safety with the city’s entire ecosystem of operations. With a focus on cutting across organizational boundaries to provide better services to residents, IBM is helping Miami-Dade County modernize and improve the predictive management capabilities of systems tied to law enforcement, transportation and water.

According to Miami-Dade County Mayor Carlos A. Gimenez, “Making Miami-Dade County more efficient and cutting the red tape that slows economic progress are priorities, and this initiative with IBM is a great way to accomplish both of those goals. We look forward to making vital data more accessible to our municipal partners and to serving our residents even better.”

In the Miami-Dade Police Department (MDPD), access to advanced analytics technology helps officers fight crime and ensure public safety. As one of the first law enforcement agencies in the nation to use an advanced crime data warehouse, MDPD has expanded its use of IBM technology to help officers and investigators make better decisions faster with a new ability to look for links among disparate crimes or situations and provide officers with a more complete view of a given situation. The system can link directly into park systems and other department operations for cross-agency collaboration and lead generation.

Using IBM SPSS predictive analytics, MDPD can bring together data in new ways to identify unique relationships and spot new and unknown patterns that have significant operational value for officers. The system can use information such as property stolen, time of day, weapon used, and victim details to model what kind of suspect typically commits a particular crime and then generate and filter a suspect list to help solve cases faster. This type of analysis can also be used to help predict, anticipate and prevent future events.

The IBM i2 Intelligent Law Enforcement solution builds on the MDPD’s existing technology investments and will provide MDPD with a holistic view across policing and justice partner agencies – removing barriers to information sharing and enabling agencies to focus solely on their mission of predicting, preventing and defeating criminals. It works by bringing together disparate data sets and allowing the entire department access to data they need, using officers’ time more effectively when they are looking for information. It will also incorporate MDPD’s existing use of predictive analytics for suspect lead detection.

Changes to hiding from public search on Facebook

Recent changes to the Facebook privacy settings, has made it difficult for users to conceal their personal profiles, as Facebook has removed the ability to hide from public search.  Facebook profiles have the ability to be located through the Facebook search function and in some cases via search engine sites such as Google.

However there is some reprieve.  Within the Facebook Privacy Settings, you have the option to remove yourself from a search engine link. This means that persons using a search engine to look for you via a name search, should be unable to link to your Facebook profile.

Go to > Privacy Settings  > Who Can Look Me Up?  > Do you want other search engines to link to your timeline?  > Uncheck the box.  (as per diagram below)

Be aware this may not remove a link to your profile due to any public content that you post.  As a result please ensure you check your privacy settings and only post your information to friends.

Best Police Social Media practice across Europe

The iPlod generation is growing all the time

There was a bit of a backlash against the police use of social media, particularly Twitter, towards the end of 2012 with many of us feeling that @J_amesP was unfairly picked on.

We wish him well in 2013, but it’s clear that although police services and the CPS may be re-drawing the boundaries on what is acceptable on social media, the number of serving police officers using social media in their work will continue to grow.

This makes the publication of a new report on police use of social media in Europe from COMPOSITE very timely.

The Study

COMPOSITE (Comporative Police Studies in the European Union) is a research project part-funded by the European Commission which focuses on organisational change in police services across the EU.

A range of organisations studied the adoption of social media by police in Belgium, the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Italy, Macedonia, the Netherlands, Romania, Spain and the UK.

The introduction to the study notes the rapid uptake in new media:

It took radio 38 years to reach 50 million listeners.
Terrestrial TV took 13 years to reach 50 million users.
The Internet took four years to reach 50 million users.
In less than nine months, Facebook added 100 million users.
The research team found that police use of social media varied considerably from country to country.


The main methods used to collect information on police social media practice was a range of workshops, focus groups, seminars and conferences.

The study was also based by a substantial study into the use of Twitter during the English riots of 2011 when the research team analysed all the tweets sent by the Metropolitan and Greater Manchester Police Services during that five day period as well as most of the tweets sent by members of the public to the police in London & Manchester.


The report’s findings are of particular interest to a British audience because they are based on different approaches to social media across Europe bolstered by an additional focus on the UK because of the riots study.

The researchers identified nine key themes:

Social media as a source of criminal information
Having a voice in social media
Social media to push information
Social media to leverage the Wisdom of the Crowd
Social media to interact with the public
Social media for community policing
Social media to show the human side of policing
Social media to support police IT infrastructure
Social media for efficient policing

In my views their findings, backed up by examples of police social media practice in different countries, are sufficiently interesting to merit a blog post on each of the nine themes.

This article originally posted on Russell Webster’s blog.

Using Social Media to build your organization’s brand

How can social media help build your agency’s brand?   Organizational branding is a new concept for public safety.  Every organization had a brand which encompasses more than its reputation. The organizations brand represents everything it values and how it operates.  In your mind, picture the  Texas Rangers, Royal Canadian Mounted Police, or London Metropolitan Police Department and an image will come to mind. The image may, or may not, be an accurate representation of the organization.  Therefore, it is an accurate statement to say: You control your organizations’ brand, or you are relinquishing control to someone else.  Social media can help you take ownership of your organization’s brand and increase your overall effectiveness and employee engagement.

To have an effective social media branding campaign your organization must be completely transparent. If your organization is misleading on how it operates or what it values, the negative impact can be insurmountably damaging.  By being honest, a “This is who we are, warts and all” attitude, you can make the connections that develop an effective brand. The conversation started during your organization’s social media branding campaign can help shed light on areas that you need to strengthen or change.  If your past had been difficult, but you made major changes, social media is a great platform to get your message out.

Now, let’s examine how social media can impact your brand in just two areas. As just mentioned, the first area is getting your message out. Before you can build your brand and share it through social media, you must truly know what your organization values.  Does your agency focus on highway law enforcement, strict enforcement of laws over solving problems, community policing, zone policing, sector policing, or another traditional beat style?  There are many more styles; however, each one of those listed has their own unique attributes.  What works well in one community may not work well in another.  When the style of policing fits the needs of the community, agency, and officers, a synergetic connection is created that improves the lives of all.

Congratulations.  You created synergy, but does anyone outside of your region of the world know about your success?  An active social media campaign can take you to the second level of organizational branding.  Your website is your brochure to the world.  Facebook, Twitter, and the others Social Media sites are your connectors that get your message out to your customers, also known as citizens, and the rest of the world.  As your message goes out, you receive information from others back through the same Social Media pipeline. You may receive questions on the success of a particular program, or suggestions to make improvements.   New South Wales Eye Watch Facebook program has been a great success and help build the organizations brand for outside the box thinking.

The second way an active social media branding campaign impacts your organization is who you attract, retain, and repel for employment.  A study completed in 2010 revealed that 30% of public safety officers did not know a significant amount of the host organizations culture before being hired.  Imagine the impact on engagement of a person who up-roots their family and moves several hundred miles to join your organization, only to find that the organization’s culture does not match their expectations or desires.  The new employee’s engagement levels will drop immediately.  Social media can prevent this by creating a realistic job preview of your organization.  This will help ensure prospective employees have as much information about your organization as possible before applying.  The statement has been made, “If we put the information on the web then no one will apply.” This is more of statement about the host organization than the impact of social media.  Your organization may not be socially connected however, the officers are and they talk around the world.  Not telling applicants up front about the culture has a significant impact on employee engagement, as well as fiscal impact on the community when officers give up and only perform the necessary requirements to keep their job.  By not being honest, your organization builds an international brand as a place to avoid.  Proactive organizations build a brand by being introspective and transparent creating a positive international image and become employer of choice.

It is imperative for an organization attempting to get its organizational brand out to strategically use Social Media to connect to its customers, employees, and prospective employees around the world.  The brand is more than the reputation; it is a summation of what the organization values and foundation it rests upon.  Social media makes the connections and creates the synergy that will allow your organization to continue to build on its success.

Sergeant W. Michael Phibbs, Richmond Police

Mike Phibbs has 19 years of police experience. He has received the Police Medal for valor and spent a career developing innovative techniques to improve organizational effectiveness and efficiency.  Mike has created a splash in the public safety community in the past few years. He has authored cutting edge articles on organizational development covering such topics as Sector Policing, Employee Engagement, Chief Score and Organizational Branding in Public Safety. His articles have been published twice by the FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, Virginia Center for Police Innovation, and on line magazines, websites and blogs. He helped developed the Pyramid of Performance Factors which show how an organizations structure and individual officers / firefighters emotional commitment combine to impact engagement and performance.   He has taught at the Virginia conference of the International Police Chiefs Association, Mid-Atlantic Fire Chiefs Conference, and been among a hand selected cadre of national leaders to teach at the award winning Virginia Fire Officers Academy. Mikes social media writing is intended to use humorous stories to show how different leadership techniques can make an emotional impact on individuals and then be used to transform organizations. 

Bizarre social media and law enforcement stories from 2012

To ease us all into 2013, I thought it was time for another round up of bizarre social media and law enforcement stories..

Three stories have taken my eye recently.



1. The Dopey Drug Dealer

Ever made that classic mobile phone mistake when you send the same text to everyone in your address book?

A 29 year old from Stafford did.

He texted:

‘Safe – got bone dry cheese if u need’  which translates pretty simply into I’ve got cannabis for sale if you want any.

Unfortunately, one of the people in his address book was the police officer who had previously arrested him for drug dealing.

Fast forward 4 months and Mr Streeter was sentenced to 16 months imprisonment.

Full details here.




2. Facebook Fail

Like so many others, Jacob, a young man from Astoria, Oregon made the error of bragging about his crimes on Facebook.

His post was short, sweet and incriminating:

‘Drivin drunk… classsic ;) but to whoever’s vehicle i hit i am sorry. :P .’

One of Jacob’s Facebook ‘Friends’ shared this message with a local law enforcement officer.

And Jacob was duly arrested.

Full details here.


Chris Matyszczyk/CNET

Chris Matyszczyk/CNET


3. How to impersonate a woman to get your iPhone back

I’ve posted before about how new smartphone apps can help recover your phone if it’s stolen – (see How to mug off your smartphone thief and ET: phone home).

New Yorker Nadav Nirberg had to rely on his own wits when he left his iPhone in a cab just after midnight on New Year’s Eve.

A couple of hours later he start getting email notifications from an online dating site called OKCupid.

He quickly worked out that someone had found his phone and was starting to make use of its internet capabilities.

So Nirberg, logged on to the site himself, created a female persona complete with picture of a gorgeous starlet and started flirting with his phone’s new owner.

He set up a date and waited.

When the thief turned up with a bottle of wine and eager attitude, Nirberg was waiting with a hammer and quickly assured the return of his phone.

Full details here.

This post was previously published on Russ Webster’s blog.

What LEOs Must Know about New Facebook Privacy Settings

There’s good news and bad in the new Facebook policies, and much left to be seen

Facebook has made some significant changes to privacy settings. They’re rolling them out to all users over the next few days and weeks, and some of it is good news! But let’s start with the bad news.

Facebook is eliminating our ability to take ourselves out of public search. This is the checkbox that, when selected, prevented your Facebook profile from showing up in searches when the person doing the searching was using a search engine outside of Facebook.

When thinking of your personal profiles on Facebook–the ones you don’t use for police work–it might be a good idea to make a slight name change and rethink whether you want to post yourself in a profile photo.

Janita Docherty, a law enforcement professional in Australia is a leading authoring on officer safety on Facebook. She offers alternative advice as well.

“Click on your Profile picture–it will open to a larger view of the picture–under your name click on the audience icon, which is likely to be a World globe. … This will open a drop down box–change this to ‘Friends.'”

This doesn’t take it away from public view but sets it so your photo isn’t viewable as a larger image to anyone but your friends. It also prevents non-friends from seeing comments associated with it. Docherty adds, “It is imperative that police members who have a Facebook account do what they can to further protect themselves online. This action may also help safeguard the accounts of family and friends.”

There’s good news though and the best part for officer safety is that officers now have more control over photos other people post of them online. Facebook is giving us a Request and Removal tool. Within the “Photos of You” tab, Facebook is providing a direct to the poster tool to request photos be removed complete with a spot to explain why. If that doesn’t work, the same tool will allow us to remove tags of ourselves from multiple photos all at once.

Additionally, there’s a new shortcut to privacy settings. It’ll appear in the upper right corner next to “home” as shown in the image included here.

These changes will be rolling out between now and the end of the year. But, there’s more to these privacy changes. For details, see news of the changes directly from Facebook here.

This Social Media Quick Tip was previously published on LawOfficer.com.

Global Police Tweet-a-thon

Several police agencies have held tweet-a-thons or tweet-the-beat events to create awareness of police work call attention to issues. A few of us have been talking a while about holding an event where police agencies everywhere could have whatever model of tweet-a-thon they want but on the same day and time in an effort to increase visiblity even more. That date for the Global Police Tweet-a-thon has been set for March 22nd of 2013 beginning at 8 a.m. and continuing for 24 hours.

Any police agency can join and tweet any portion of the 24 hour period.

Early entries are from all over Texas and the rest of the U.S. with a few committed from Canada and the UK. Our hope is to get agencies from as many countries involved as possible.

The Mesa County Sheriff in Colorado is one of the agency’s to throw its sheriff’s hat in early. PIO Heather Benjamin explained it this way, “The Mesa County Sheriff’s Office hopes to share a small piece of Western Colorado with the world and highlight the positive aspects of law enforcement. In addition, we look forward to partnering with law enforcement globally through social media. Exciting times!”

And in Louisiana, the Chief of Police in Thibodaux said he’s promoting transparency in policing actions and furthering proactive social media integration. Chief Scott Silveri said his agency will participate in the tweet-a-thon because, “Our participation in the global tweet-a-thon is based on the hope that other agencies break from the reactive isolationist nature of traditional law enforcement, and begin realizing the benefits of sharing timely and relevant information through social media.”

To participate, just email Lauri Stevens at lauri@lawscomm.net with your agency name, contact name and email address. Then mark your calendar for March 22nd. We’ll be in touch with the hashtag to be used for the event.

Click on the flier below to download a .pdf version.

No more hiding from public search in Facebook

Facebook has again made changes with new privacy settings, which will start rolling out to accounts over the next few weeks.

One of the changes is to the Public Search option which is being removed. Facebook account holders who previously used this privacy setting will no longer have this option. This means that as your account name can be searched publicly, ANYONE, including those people who are not on Facebook, may be in a position to find you.

For Officer Safety purposes a suggestion would be to make a slight alteration to your name, so as not to become obvious in a search result, but still enough detail that is known to your friends & family. Be thoughtful to consider the Facebook terms of service (SRR), when doing this. It may also be viable that if you do not want the public to view a personal photo of you, to change your profile picture to an avatar.

The change to public search DOES NOT change who can view your profile. If you have your privacy settings in place, this will not change. For children’s accounts the public search option will remain in inactive for them until they attain the age of 18years, where it will then go public automatically.

Regarding your profile picture and cover photo. The cover photo is the large picture that spreads across your Timeline which is public view by default and cannot be changed. It is best that personal photos, especially of you or your family, are not displayed here.

The Profile picture is the smaller picture which identifies you on Facebook. Every time you post or engage in activity on Facebook this picture represents you. Ensure your profile picture is credible and not displaying anything that may be construed as offensive or detrimental to you or your workplace.

The profile picture is also public by default, however you can click into the photo and change the view, so only your friends can see the larger version of the picture. Changing the audience to friends, disallows the public to view the larger portion of the photo AND any comments or likes that accompany it.

Click on your Profile picture – it will open to a larger view of the photo – under your name and next to where the date is displayed, you will see a grey icon, (in most instances this will be a World Globe), this is the audience selector – click on this to display a drop down box – choose the Friends option.

Just to re-iterate this does not remove your profile picture from the public search view, it only prevents the public from viewing the larger version of your photo AND any comments or likes that accompany it.

Janita Docherty founder and Director of CyberActive Services is a trained Crime Prevention Executive with more than 18 years experience in the field of law and criminal investigation. Janita specialises in Facebook and Internet Safety instruction and is recognised for her work with law enforcement Units dedicated in the fields of E-Crime, Sex Crime, State Intelligence and Tactical Intelligence areas. Janita has an intricate knowledge on the workings of Facebook from a criminal intelligence perspective and is a leader in her field regarding Facebook training to Police and specialist law enforcement departments both in Australia and the United States. Janita has completed training with the Internet Crime Against Children (ICAC) Taskforce, and holds a number of Certifications, including a Diploma in Frontline Management, a full qualification in Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED), is a Youth Mental Health First Aider and has been presented with a National Service Medal. She is held in high regard within social media and law enforcement domains, for her enthusiasm to educate professionals, regarding online safety and digital reputation management.

Cell Phone Triage for Police Officers

It’s the same story played all across America. It goes like this: Police Officer XYZ is dispatched to a residence where, as the First Responder, he discovers a crime scene. Officer XYZ notes a cell phone on the scene possibly belonging to the suspect or victim. Officer XYZ decides to search the phone for “investigative leads” and “evidence”. Then, accidentally, Officer XYZ DELETES the phone’s data or even worse, WIPES the phone’s data.

Now, if you were that officer, how would you tell your Chief/Sheriff about this mishap? How are you going to explain what you did to your prosecuting attorneys or better yet, the defense attorneys?

Cell phones are a blessing and a curse. They contain myriad amounts of information about someone. A cell phone reveals a person’s true character. It’s Digital DNA in a box! But, if the officer handling the phone is not careful, that blessed phone data could become a noose around his or her neck and possibly their career. Like any evidence, the cell phone and its contents must be handled correctly or the officer could lose that evidence.

The first responding officer is the initial evidence protector. That officer is responsible for the crime scene’s protection until other units, investigators and the forensics division get to the scene. Having been a police officer myself, I know what it is to arrive first on a hot scene and then have to handle everything until others arrive (and they never get there fast enough)!

Let’s imagine that you just responded to a crime scene. The suspect is gone but the victim is lying unresponsive on the floor. In the victim’s hand is a cell phone. What are you going to do? Let me give you some help.

In my book, Cellular Forensics for First Responders I share my unique “S.P.E.A.R. Digital Triage Method™”. I developed this method as a way to help police officers deal with cellular devices on a scene. In a case you may use one, some, or all of these steps. The goal is to give you a springboard to incorporate the cell phone and its data safely in to your case so that any evidence gained is not tainted.

The S.P.E.A.R. Digital Triage Method™

S = Survey the Scene: Look before you leap. Do you see a mobile phone on the scene? Then determine if you need to deal with it at this time (exigent circumstances) or if it can wait for the forensics professionals to arrive. Also, does your State or Agency allow you to examine a phone without a Warrant? Be careful of any 4th Amendment violations. Such violations can be very costly to both you and your agency.

P = Protect the Phone: you need to protect that mobile phone from outside contamination. That includes other officers on the scene that want to “monkey punch” and play with it. A phone can be contaminated or wiped digitally by outside signals. If the phone is off, leave it off!

E = Evaluate the Phone and Area: look for anything that is visible to the naked eye. Is there anything on the phone’s screen? Is the unit damaged? Password protected? Is the phone active or turned off? Is the phone worth the effort at this time or should you just let the forensics expert handle it?

A = Acquire the Phone: if you are in charge of the phone’s examination (and have been properly trained), use the forensic tools you have to acquire the data from the phone.

R = Report: your report of your handling, analysis and findings is very important in a case. Your report will go before you and allow the evidence to be presented or dismissed without you being present. Take your time.

So there you have it, an easy to follow guide to handling cell phone evidence at a crime scene. Use these simple steps and your career will thank you!

Tom Slovenski is an international law enforcement instructor in Mobile Phone Forensics and owner of Cellular Forensics, LLC in South Carolina. Tom has over 25 years of investigative experience and is a former senior law enforcement detective. His highly acclaimed book, “Cellular Forensics for First Responders” has been widely accepted by law enforcement officers across the world and is available on Amazon.com. For more information, go to cellularforensics.com and cellphonetraining.info for class schedules, S.P.E.A.R Digital Triage Method™ Certification and other training information.

Improving officer intuition through social media

Have you ever talked to a law enforcement officer who recounted a story of his life when he was saved by a sixth sense that something wasn’t right on a call? Neuroscientists have recently started researching intuition, also referred to as the sixth sense, to determine how it works. Based on some findings, intuition expands as the brain learns and stores away new information in the subconscious. The more connected people are to the world around them, the greater the volume of information received and stored for future use. As law enforcement officers continue to connect through social media, they pass on their own insights on their own triumphs and failures. They discuss how they handle various calls, situations that went right and wrong. The information is stored in the recipient’s subconscious brain and may come back as sixth sense, hair rising on the back of neck, intuition that says something is not right and to be prepared. We may find as law enforcement officers continue connecting and sharing their insights around the world that social media may actually help improve intuition and increase officer safety.

In the world of public safety in general, and law enforcement in particular, our minds are constantly receiving information. We take information in from the world around us through routine calls, social interactions with citizens, and our relationships with other officers. Just as important as the general information we receive, we learn what was successful and unsuccessful. Over the years, we store vast amounts of information as patterns of data in our long term memories. As we are handling daily calls for service our brains search for similar patterns of information that correlate with what is happening and compare it to past memory patterns. Through atomicity, an ultra high speed process for moving information from long-term to working memory, we intuitively recall stored patterns of data telling us how we have handled similar situations. As Daniel Kahneman describes in Thinking Fast and Slow, “Intuition is nothing more and nothing less than recognition.” As we handle our calls, we are constantly adding to the stored patterns and building blue prints for future use. Even if a similar incident occurred 12 years earlier, and long removed from our working memory, it is waiting there only to manifests itself at intuition.

Now consider how social media enters the conversation. The internet and social media have now changed how we exchange information. Before the social media explosion, officers learned to do their jobs in their academies, field training officers, their shift mates, and simply doing the job. A slow learning curve existed for officers to build their skills and increase the data stored in their long term memories. The learning bandwidth was narrow and officers have been injured from lack of knowing how officers in another part of the world may have developed more effective tactics to handle certain calls. Officers didn’t have the luxury to get on the internet and immediately connect to other officers worldwide to seek advice. Instead of interacting and learning from a small group of people, the learning bandwidth has now exploded through social media allowing people to connect around the world.

Today, officers read posts, watch videos and participate in forums to discuss situations instantaneously across continents and oceans. An officer in the United States may enter a forum or post on a message board and discuss an incident or video, recounting what occurred to an officer in Venezuela with officers in Ireland and Thailand. Through these connections officers learn new techniques and validate proven tactics worldwide. As we watch a vehicle pursuit on YouTube, have a discussion on LinkedIn, or interact on a blog, we are continually building our mental dossiers. During these discussions, information is processed in our brains and stored in the long term memory for later use. Through social media integration we are able to learn from each other as if we were at the incident ourselves. Imagine a critical incident that occurs which your formal training never covered; however, you are very well connected through social media. Several officers you talk to around the world have had experience that relates to this incident and the information comes flooding to your working memory as intuition, as if you did have the prior experience. Through your automatic downloading and storing of information learned through your social media connections to other officers, your mind provides several options. Your mind says option A did not work in New Zealand, however, Option B worked in Canada and Option C worked in Hungary. You then pick the option that best matches your circumstances. After the incident you interpret this as having a streak of intuition about what to do. The “intuition” was merely your brain recognizing the patterns in others had shared through social media.

Many organizations are still learning to trust and handle social media. There is a fear that officers will learn bad habits or tactics that violate their own cultural norms or organizational policies. Organizations need to utilize social media because it is not going to disappear and will continue to expand and evolve over time. Organizations can be a part of shaping the conversation or they will be relegated to reacting to the conversations. First and second line supervisors should encourage officers to be more connected and expand their perspectives and develop new insights from the diversity of officers around the world. As these conversations grow, officers are becoming more conscious of successful tactics that they may employ or new officer survival considerations to improve safety. As younger, more socially connected officers move up in their organizations the social media trust aspect will improve. Officers connected worldwide will continue to learn from each other and add to their long term memories. In the future, an officer’s life in Europe may be saved through and intuitive feeling that was developed through an on line conversation years earlier with officers in Africa and North America.

We are increasing our knowledge on how the brain works and the process that creates and expands intuition. Through social media we are having worldwide conversations that expand our knowledge of tactics and officer safety issues. We now know intuition is not simply a flash of brilliance but rather, your brain searching for long stored and forgotten information that may save your life. By keeping the conversations going we are in fact helping to keep each other safe.


Helic, Sebastein & Cousieau, Denis. Cognitive Neuroscience of Automaticity: Behavior and Brain Signatures.: http://ccn.psych.purdue.edu/papers/Helie-Cousineau-automaticity_review-final.pdf

Intuition and unconscious learning – Less Wrong: http://lesswrong.com/lw/59v/intuition_and_unconscious_learning/

Kahneman, D. (2011) Thinking Fast and Slow. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux,

Warren, S. (1997) Remember this: Memory and the brain: http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/biology/b103/f97/projects97/Warren.html

Photograph: examiner.com: http://www.examiner.com/images/blog/wysiwyg/image/Brain-Power6.jpg

Sergeant W. Michael Phibbs, Richmond Police

Mike Phibbs has 19 years of police experience. He has received the Police Medal for valor and spent a career developing innovative techniques to improve organizational effectiveness and efficiency.  Mike has created a splash in the public safety community in the past few years. He has authored cutting edge articles on organizational development covering such topics as Sector Policing, Employee Engagement, Chief Score and Organizational Branding in Public Safety. His articles have been published twice by the FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, Virginia Center for Police Innovation, and on line magazines, websites and blogs. He helped developed the Pyramid of Performance Factors which show how an organizations structure and individual officers / firefighters emotional commitment combine to impact engagement and performance.   He has taught at the Virginia conference of the International Police Chiefs Association, Mid-Atlantic Fire Chiefs Conference, and been among a hand selected cadre of national leaders to teach at the award winning Virginia Fire Officers Academy. Mikes social media writing is intended to use humorous stories to show how different leadership techniques can make an emotional impact on individuals and then be used to transform organizations.